A 4-billion-year-old chunk of the Earth’s crust the size of Ireland is hidden beneath Western Australia, a new study reveals.

This part of the crust is among the oldest on Earth, but not the oldest. This honor goes to him Canadian Shield rocks on the east coast of Hudson Bay, which have been dated to 4.3 billion years old. (Earth is 4.54 billion years old.) Because Earth’s crust is constantly being shuffled and pushed back into the mantle by plate tectonics, most of the planet’s rocky surface was formed within the last two billion years.

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